Modern organization is able to survive and be a successfully compete at the market only upon condition of continuous development and adaptation to changing business conditions. This means that company’s management constantly faces relevant management problems while setting and achieving specific goals: planning the work in time, determining resource requirements, resources costs, loan payable and loan receivable. And this is just a few of many daily issues. These issues are related to the uncertainty, which always exists while projects realization.
The Project – is a unique activity aimed at achieving a specific result or purpose, under the given constraints on resources and timing, as well as taking into account the quality requirements and risk tolerance. The Project generally involves a set of interrelated objectives.
Project management is an area of activity, in which clear objectives are defined and achieved by balancing between amount of work, resources (time, money, labor, materials, energy, etc.), quality and risks within the framework of several projects aimed at achieving a specific result with the above restrictions. A key success factor of project management is a clear pre-determined plan, and deviations from it, as well as minimizing the project risks.
The concepts of Project and Project management are associated with the need to manage the changers. An important feature of project management is the accurate definition and formulation of objectives, beginning from the highest level, and then gradually specifying objectives and targets.
Projects Management System (PMS) includes organizational and technological complex of methodological, technical, software and information tools aimed at supporting and improving the planning and management of the project, which is based on software of scheduling.
Projects Management System is used for:
development of a phased schedule of the project;
identifying the critical path and time reserve;
determining the need for funding, materials and equipment;
allocation of renewable resources over time;
risk analysis and schedules planning taking into account the risks;
control and monitoring of the project;
the analysis of deviations from the planned progress and forecasting of the main parameters of the project.
Projects management systems, which offer easy access to information on a variety of concurrent projects, have appeared in the late 90’s. The projects management systems ceased to be just a tool for creating and optimizing models of the project over time, now they are the core of the collection and processing of project data in real time. Carefully compiled information model provides management and team members a possibility to take appropriate and reasoned decisions throughout the project cycle. Appropriate management can provide construction of procedures to review the quality of works, which focuses management attention on the achievement of these goals. The information model of the project, developed at the primary planning stage, is revised during its implementation. Thus, the basic methods of scheduling are used throughout the project life cycle.
The main advantages of using an information system for project management are:
centralized storage of information on the work schedule, resources and costs;
the possibilities of rapid analysis of the impact of changes in the schedule, resourcing and funding for the project plan;
ability of distributed support and data update in a network mode;
the possibilities of automatic generation of reports and graphical charts, development of the documentation for the project.
The most common and easy to use software package for the Project Management System is Microsoft Project. Standard office interface allows you to learn quickly how to use the program; that is one of the main advantages of MS Project.
The use of formal project management methods allows:
- defining investment goals more reasonably,
- determining the best plan for investment,
- considering the project risks more comprehensively,
- optimizing the use of available resources,
- avoiding conflict situations,
- monitoring the implementation of the plan,
- analyzing the actual performance and making timely adjustments in the course of works,
- gathering, analyzing and using the experience of completed projects in the future.
Thus, the project management system is an essential component of the overall management system of the organization.
Practical application of PMS
In the forefront of the Projects Management Systems and project management widespread acceptance, the requirements for organizations on the application of project management began to appear in sectorial normative regulations. Currently, non-profit partnerships and associations standardize the requirements for its members in the use of Projects Management System. For example, Self-regulating organization Non-profit partnership «Association of the building organizations in nuclear branch «SOJUZATOMSTROJ» has developed the Standard STO-SUPG-00001-2010 for the Project Management System for members of their society. Similar requirements for the project management are set out in IRIS Standards for the railway industry.